Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine
Ultrasound-Guided Suprainguinal Fascia Iliaca Technique Provides Benefit as an Analgesic Adjunct for Patients Undergoing Total Hip Arthroplasty.
Bullock WM, Yalamuri SM, Gregory SH, Auyong DB, Grant SA
Analgesia after total hip arthroplasty is often accomplished by the fascia iliaca compartment block, traditionally performed below the inguinal ligament, to anesthetize both femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves. The course of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve below the inguinal ligament is variable as opposed to consistent above the inguinal ligament in the pelvis. In this case series including 5 patients, we demonstrate that an ultrasound-guided suprainguinal fascia iliaca approach would consistently anesthetize the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve along with anterior cutaneous femoral nerve branches and provide cutaneous analgesia after total hip arthroplasty, as shown by decreased opioid consumption.
Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine
Essentials of Our Current Understanding: Abdominal Wall Blocks.
Chin KJ, McDonnell JG, Carvalho B, Sharkey A, Pawa A, Gadsden J
Abdominal wall blocks rely on the spread of local anesthetic within musculofascial planes to anesthetize multiple small nerves or plexuses, rather than targeting specific nerve structures. Ultrasonography is primarily responsible for the widespread adoption of techniques including transversus abdominis plane and rectus sheath blocks, as well as the introduction of novel techniques such as quadratus lumborum and transversalis fascia blocks. These blocks are technically straightforward and relatively safe and reduce pain and opioid requirements in many clinical settings. The data supporting these outcomes, however, can be inconsistent because of heterogeneity of study design. The extent of sensory blockade is also somewhat variable, because it depends on the achieved spread of local anesthetic and the anatomical course of the nerves being targeted. The blocks mainly provide somatic analgesia and are best used as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen. This review summarizes the anatomical, sonographic, and technical aspects of the abdominal wall blocks in current use, examining the current evidence for the efficacy and safety of each.
Ischemic Lesions, Blood Pressure Dysregulation, and Poor Outcomes in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
Kidwell CS, Rosand J, Norato G, Dixon S, Worrall BB, James ML, et. al.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations among diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesions, blood pressure (BP) dysregulation, MRI markers of small vessel disease, and poor outcome in a large, prospective study of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).
METHODS: The Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ERICH) study is a multicenter, observational study of ICH among white, black, and Hispanic patients.
RESULTS: Of 600 patients, mean (±SD) age was 60.8 ± 13.6 years, median (interquartile range) ICH volume was 9.1 mL (3.5-20.8), and 79.6% had hypertension. Overall, 26.5% of cases had DWI lesions, and this frequency differed by race/ethnicity (black 33.8%, Hispanic 24.9%, white 20.2%, overall p = 0.006). A logistic regression model of variables associated with DWI lesions included lower age (odds ratio [OR] 0.721, p = 0.002), higher first recorded systolic BP (10-unit OR 1.12, p = 0.002), greater change in mean arterial pressure (MAP) prior to the MRI (10-unit OR 1.10, p = 0.037), microbleeds (OR 1.99, p = 0.008), and higher white matter hyperintensity (WMH) score (1-unit OR 1.16, p = 0.002) after controlling for race/ethnicity, leukocyte count, and acute in-hospital antihypertensive treatment. A second model of variables associated with poor 90-day functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale scores 4-6) included DWI lesion count (OR 1.085, p = 0.034) as well as age, ICH volume, intraventricular hemorrhage, Glasgow Coma Scale score, WMH score, race/ethnicity, acute in-hospital antihypertensive treatment, and ICH location.
CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypotheses that acute BP dysregulation is associated with the development of DWI lesions in primary ICH and that DWI lesions are, in turn, associated with poor outcomes.